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Mycobacteria are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among immunocompromised or elderly individuals and in countries with limited medical resources. Ninety-five percent of human infections are caused by seven species: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium (also known as the mycobacterium avium complex or M. avium-intracellulare), M. leprae, M. kansasii, M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, and M. absecessus. The most common mycobacterial infections in the United States are pulmonary infections by M. tuberculosis or M. avium. Such mycobacterial infections have been of increasing concern over the past decade, particularly in light of the increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant strains.